A gravel bike is a bicycle designed for riding on unpaved roads. It is similar to a mountain bike but with narrower tires and a lighter frame. Gravel bikes are ideal for depending on rough terrains, such as dirt, sand, and rocks.
Read this article to have more information about what is a gravel bike and what to consider when buying one.
- 1 What Is A Gravel Bicycle?
- 2 What’s It Used For?
- 3 The History Of Gravel Bikes
- 4 How Have Gravel Bikes Changed Over The Years?
- 5 Material For Frames
- 6 Geometry
- 7 Tires
- 8 Wheels
- 9 Disc Brakes
- 10 Gearing
- 11 Mounts
- 12 Additional Features
- 13 Electric Gravel Bikes
- 14 Gravel Bike Vs Road Bike
- 15 Gravel Bike Vs Mountain Bike
- 16 Who Should Use A Gravel Bike?
- 17 Who Should Not Use A Gravel Bike?
- 18 Benefits Of Gravel Bikes
- 19 Risks Associated With Gravel Bikes
- 20 Environmental Impact Of Using A Gravel Bike
- 21 Is It Possible To Keep A Gravel Bike Functioning?
- 22 Is A Gravel Bike Required To Be Ridden In A Designated Area?
- 23 What To Wear When Riding A Gravel Bike?
- 24 What Accessories Are Recommended For Gravel Bike Use?
- 25 Conclusion
What Is A Gravel Bicycle?
A gravel bike has a drop bar bike that allows you to ride on many surfaces. Thanks to the drop handlebar and road-bike-like design, you can still make significant progress on the roads. However, you can also enjoy more freedom off the beaten path with wider tires, lower gearing, and better handling.
Multi-terrain biking is possible by riding a bike that can connect gravel roads in new ways. You can also take in forest tracks, trails, and bridlepaths. You can also load your gravel bike up with camping gear for multiday bike packing adventures.
A gravel bike can look different from one manufacturer to another, just like any other bike category.
The type of riding you plan to do will determine the best gravel bike. Let’s look at the critical design elements that make up gravel.
What’s It Used For?
Gravel bikes are great for many types of cycling. These adventure bikes are great for road riding and off-roading. They can often carry luggage and are sturdy, comfortable, and durable. This makes them great for short trips and longer commutes.
The History Of Gravel Bikes
Given their popularity, it may surprise you that the gravel is one of the most recent models to hit the market. Only a few years ago, the first gravel was created.
Salsa Cycles, a Minnesota-based company that designed the first gravel, was the first to do so. The Salsa Cycles team created the ‘Warbird bike’ in 2012 after they realized that road and cyclocross bikes weren’t sufficient for gravel racing.
They wanted to create a bike that could do everything and include all the features required for gravel racing.
So, the Warbird bike was born. Since then, most gravel bikes have been a prevalent subtype of bicycles in the cycling community. They are also the most popular type of bike and the fastest growing for many years.
How Have Gravel Bikes Changed Over The Years?
The Gravel has typically been a niche player in the bike market since its inception in 2012.
As we have already mentioned, gravel bikes are relatively new compared to more established models.
Although this type of bike hasn’t seen any significant changes in design since its conception, gravel manufacturers continue their growth and adaptation, offering more tire and gear options.
Material For Frames
Like other bicycles, gravel bikes can be made of various frame materials.
Aluminum and carbon are the most popular options.
Aluminum is a durable, affordable, and lightweight material used to build a gravel bike.
Carbon frames are lighter than aluminum frames. Carbon frames can be designed to provide more aerodynamic tube shapes and stiffness.
You’ll find other options than carbon and aluminum for your titanium gravel bike.
A gravel bike looks similar to a road bike but is built for better off-road handling. This usually means a longer wheelbase, a shorter frame, and more stable angles for the forks and frame.
Cannondale uses its OutFront geometry for its Topstone gravel bikes. This is a result of Cannondale’s mountain bikes. It places the front wheel further forward than the rider for increased stability.
The gravel is more upright than a road bike and has a shorter head tube and reach.
This will allow you to ride longer and more comfortably and will enable you to shift your weight to overcome obstacles and off-road descents.
The frame tubes will be shaped to cushion the ride, especially in the rear triangle. Curved and flattened sections within the seat stays and chainstays will provide in-saddle comfort. A seatpost may also be designed to absorb vibrations.
Consider the terrain you will be using your bike, and choose a built bike to handle.
You’ll want to ride primarily on roads with occasional off-road tracks. If this is the case, you will need a bike that feels more like an endurance bike.
Many endurance road bikes come equipped with light-gravel riding tires.
You might prefer a bike that is more capable on off-road terrain. There are also machines with wider tires and smaller 650b wheels.
This is what we will be discussing suspension, dropper posts, and other features that are straight out of our MTB counterparts.
The tire width, usually 40mm, is an essential feature of gravel bikes. The tire size impacts how much technical terrain you can ride, more so than any other component of a gravel bicycle.
Gravel bike tires have more volume, so you can run lower pressures (40psi or below), which provides comfort and traction on uneven surfaces.
There will likely be a tread pattern to aid grip on slippery surfaces.
The conditions will determine how much tread you require. You may only require a light file or diamond tread for dry trails. However, mountain bike tires designed for winter tracks will need more aggressive patterns and side lugs to provide extra grip.
Most wheels and tires can be run tubeless (without an inner tube). This lets you keep your tire pressure down and avoid pinch flats (where the inner tube gets stuck between the tyre’s rim and the tire in a regular clincher setup).
The sealant in the gravel bike tires will withstand punctures caused by thorns, flants, and other factors. It forms a seal around small cracks in the rubber to prevent air from escaping.
A bike’s frame and fork blades will have enough space for oversized tires. This allows for extra handling of any mud they may collect. However, clearances can vary between bikes.
There are two sizes of gravel bike wheels: 700c or 650b.
The 650b wheel has a smaller diameter and can be shod with wider tires for more traction. However, the wheel’s rolling diameter is similar to that of a road bike, which allows for comparable gearing and feels.
Many gravels are equipped with 700c wheels with tires and tires. You can swap to 650b later if you wish. However, increasing numbers of cycles come with smaller sizes out of the box, especially for bikes that are more focused on off-road riding.
Want to know more dimensions of the wheel? Read this guide: How To Measure Bike Wheel Size?
These disc brakes used on gravel bikes tend to have a fairly small rotor, making them lighter in weight. They use on modern road bikes and are a standard feature on gravel bikes. It was made possible by hydraulic disc brakes that can be used with drop-bar gear shifters.
Disc brakes provide consistent, effective stopping no matter the conditions – essential for gravel bikes – and plenty of space for wider tires for off-road riding.
When it comes to gravel bike setup, gearing is crucial.
To tackle challenging terrain and steep climbs, you will need to use lower gears if you are going off-road. You can’t climb on slippery surfaces because of reduced grip. To avoid getting out of the saddle, spin up the gradient.
With a wide-range cassette, It should have at least a 50/34t compact-road chainset.
Super-compact chainsets, however, are common. Shimano’s GRX gravel set allows you to climb more challenging routes by reducing the chainring size to 48/31t and 46/30t, respectively.
A super-compact set of gears is recommended if you intend to ride your gravel bike off-road over technical or steep terrain.
Another popular option for gravel riding is single-ring groupsets.
The front derailleur is gone, and you can use just one chainring. This makes it simpler and less risky. A single chainset gives you the same range as a double one but with slightly more incredible jumps between gears.
A chainring will have alternating narrow and wide teeth. This, together with a clutched rear derailleur, helps to keep the chain in its place and keeps it running smoothly when it gets bumpy.
If you have trouble with bike chains, this article may help you: How To Fix A Bike Chain?
A common feature of gravel bikes is the many mounts that can attach accessories or luggage.
Many gravel bikes come with mounts for mudguards and racks. This makes them great for commuters or winter riding.
For long rides, where water may be scarce, a typical set of mounting points will include bolts to attach a third water bottle underneath the down tube. These can be used to keep your hands free by holding a tool keg inside a bottle cage.
Some gravel bikes have mounts that allow for a feed bag to be placed on the bike’s top tube, just behind the stem.
Mounts for extra luggage or bottle cages can be found on the fork blades. Some bikes also have a mountain to mount a dynamo lamp on the fork crown.
Gravel bikes often have bars that flare to the drops. Flared drops offer additional stability and improve handling, especially when descending quickly.
You won’t need to reach too low for the bars.
Dropper seat posts are also helpful in descending off-road. They can be borrowed from mountain bikes.
A lever can control dropper posts at the lower bars or raise your saddle. This allows you to get out of the way when it is steep or rough.
You’ll increasingly see suspension features on gravel bikes. Cannondale Topstone Carbon’s suspension system, Kingpin, is built into the seat stays. It allows for up to 30mm movement. Topstone Carbon Lefty bikes feature a single-leg Lefty Oliver suspension.
Electric Gravel Bikes
E-gravel bikes and electric bikes are rapidly gaining popularity. Many brands make electric gravel bikes. It offer electric assistance while you pedal (up to a certain speed, at which point the motor will cut off) – applicable when you’re trying to tackle steep climbs or when you want to go further afield.
The type of electric bike motor you use will determine how much assistance you receive. Range depends on battery size, terrain, and the aid level needed (most systems provide a variety of levels of service).
Gravel Bike Vs Road Bike
As we mentioned, a gravel bike is more relaxed than a road bike. This means you will be more comfortable and stable if you sit up straighter.
You’ll also have the option to buy wider tires with more tread and comprehensive gear options that include lower ratios.
However, gravel bikes aren’t much slower rolling than regular road bikes, primarily if your tire selection is geared towards riding on the tarmac.
When comparing gravel geometry to road bike geometry, terminology like “longer, lower, slacker” may be more recognizable to you from the mountain bike community.
Riding on gravel versus riding on the road have quite different requirements.
Gravel riders seek stability and capability over more demanding terrain, as well as maximum comfort for extended days in the saddle. In contrast, road bike geometry tends to trend towards accurate handling and a responsive, fast ride.
These distinctions in the geometries of road and dirt bikes are crucial. Similar to how trail bikes typically have longer wheelbases and slacker head tube angles than cross-country cycles, they have these features to increase stability.
With the exception of racing horses, gravel bikes are typically built with a more upright body position in mind, and as a result, they have shorter reaches and taller stacks than many road cycles. There may be some overlap in this area since endurance road bikes also have a less aggressive stance.
Some gravel feature sloping top tubes, which, in addition to exposing more of the Seatpost and providing a little more compliance over rougher terrain than a typical, straight top tube, also makes the bike simpler to maneuver.
2. Tires and Clearance
One of the main distinctions between dirt bikes and road cycles is tires and, just as important, tire clearance.
While many road bikes are built to fit 28mm tires, certain progressive endurance road bikes can even use 32mm tires, gravel bike tires are often no narrower than 35mm, and they can even go as far as XC mountain bike tires at 2 inches (50mm) or more.
The largest tire width that can be utilized depends on the clearance between the forks, seat stays, and chainstays. This is often much wider for gravel bikes to accommodate a larger variety of tires and treads, as well as crucial mud clearance for wetter, stickier conditions.
When it comes to gravel, some manufacturers or riders choose to use 650b wheels so they can fit a larger tire without having to change the frame.
Except for a few smaller-sized bikes, all road bikes have 700c wheels installed in order to maintain more proportionate geometry.
Road tires are almost universally slippery, whereas gravel tires almost always have some sort of tread pattern. This may vary depending on use, with aggressive knobs for traction in muddier, more technical circumstances and semi-slick tires for quick, dry racing.
3. Frame Materials
Aluminum, carbon, steel, and titanium are materials used to make gravel and road bikes.
Every material has advantages and disadvantages that range from cost to durability, weight, and vibration absorption.
Of course, different materials vary greatly from one another. For instance, steel quality can greatly affect how much a frame weighs.
Thanks to its strength, longevity, and vibration-dampening ride quality, as well as the prevalence of bespoke builds in this category, steel tends to be more popular in the gravel riding community than in the world of road cycling.
However, due to its stiffness, lightweight, and vibration absorption, carbon fiber is still arguably the most preferred material in both categories for higher-end builds.
Budget-friendly frames made of aluminum alloy are more prevalent; they have sturdy construction at affordable pricing, making them ideal for novice gravel riders.
Highly sought-after titanium constructions can be found at the top end of the price spectrum. When compared to steel, titanium is said to provide a better ride quality while being lighter and more fatigue resistant.
4. Mounting Points
While endurance, urban, and winter road bike models are likely to have more mounts so you can equip mudguards, racks, and extra bottles, racing road bikes are likely to have very few mounting points and only accommodate a pair of bottle cages in the main triangle.
The same is true in the gravel world, where more aggressive models can be almost entirely covered in bosses, from the top tube to the fork legs and down tube, while more bike packing-oriented builds can be reduced down to just a few bottles.
5. Finishing Kit
Although gravel road bikes initially have a lot in common, closer inspection frequently reveals small differences, like the finishing kit, which includes the seat posts, stems, handlebars, and saddles.
It’s not surprising that racing road bikes have more aerodynamically curved bars and seat posts since they are designed for efficiency in both pedaling and aerodynamics.
Although aerodynamic finishing equipment can be found on gravel builds, items that provide more stable handling and smooth out rougher tracks are more frequent.
Flared handlebars, which have grown to be a highly popular option for gravel, provide a broader, more secure stance in the drops for descending on rougher surfaces. Instead, some bikes have flat bars.
Some gravel bikes, like the Canyon VCLS 2.0, include seat posts made to be more comfortable across rougher terrain.
You can find some more cutting-edge technology here with suspension seat posts, dropper posts, and even suspension stems and headsets. These can either be included as a frameset component or added as aftermarket extras.
In the gravel industry, this is a developing trend that ranges from built-in frame micro-suspension of a few millimeters, as seen on the new BMC URS LT, to aftermarket suspension parts, like the RockShox Rudy Ultimate XPLR fork with up to 40mm of travel.
Curiously, the spring classics like Paris-Roubaix and the Tour of Flanders prompted an arms race in developing road micro-suspension to handle the rough roads and pavé at speed, which is where the idea for built-in gravel bike suspension originated.
Although the suspension is more frequently seen on gravel bikes to ease the strain of long, rocky rides or to give a little extra technical capability, endurance road bikes may still have micro-suspension components, such as the Future Shock 2.0 headset on the Specialized Roubaix.
With a few exceptions, road cyclists often select SPD-SL three-bolt road bike pedals, whereas gravel cyclists typically choose SPD two-bolt mountain bike pedals and cleats.
Hard-wearing SPD metal cleats perform better for off-road riding because you’re more likely to spend some time off the bike on rough terrain, and the pedals have dual-sided entry, which can be particularly helpful.
This pedal and cleat arrangement is typically taken into consideration while designing the best gravel bike shoes.
Some gravel riders like flat pedals for more tricky or muddy riding, or even trail pedals, which provide a larger platform around the mechanism. These are also quite useful for multi-day journeys.
Only single-stage gravel races like the SBT GRVL commonly use SPD-SL-style pedals off-road due to their enhanced efficiency when paired with stiffer-soled road cycling shoes.
Gravel Bike Vs Mountain Bike
1. Drop vs. Flat Handlebars
The handlebar is the distinguishing feature that most clearly distinguishes gravel bikes from mountain bikes. Mountain bikes have flat handlebars, whereas gravel bikes have curved drop handlebars like road cycles. Mountain bikes with drop bars and flat-bar gravel bikes do exist, but they are uncommon.
The Gravel is typically used over longer distances and at higher speeds on calmer roads. Drop handlebars provide the rider with extra hand locations to modify for comfort and to lessen fatigue during extended days in the saddle.
For sprinting, the drops also offer a lower, more aerodynamic stance and leverage. Gravel bikes include drop bars to allow for easy switching between paved and gravel routes, giving them versatility for riding at high speeds.
Additionally, these bars are often thinner than flat bars, which makes them easier to ride alongside other cyclists during group rides and races.
Wider than drop bars, mountain bike flat bars offer stability and leverage on challenging singletrack routes. Flat handlebars frequently allow cyclists to stand up straighter and spread their hands wider.
On smooth, open highways, this may be more comfortable, but it also reduces your aerodynamic efficiency for higher speeds. For the slower speeds on singletrack trails, flat bars work well.
2. Tire Clearance
Typically in the 38-45mm range, gravel bikes may use wider tires than road and cyclocross cycles. A few variants may now accommodate tires up to 50mm in diameter. More tire volume and wide tires enhance comfort and traction.
Even the biggest gravel tires are narrower than the majority of mountain bike tires. Most XC mountain bikes are made to accommodate tires that are 2.1-2.4″ wide (50mm gravel tires are roughly 1.97″ wide). Mountain bike tires provide the most comfort and traction but are heavier and slower rolling.
Gravel bike tires have an advantage on faster, smoother terrain, similar to the handlebar comparison, whereas mountain bike tires can manage rougher roads and trails.
Generally speaking, dirt bikes will have “harder” gearing to accommodate quicker speeds. For steep and tricky off-road climbs, mountain bikes will have considerably “easier” gearing. When it comes to gearing, both mountain bikes and gravel bikes have restrictions.
Consider gravel and a mountain bike that both have the newest SRAM 1x drivetrains. XPLR eTap AXS gravel drivetrains on gravel bikes may employ a 10-44t cassette and a 42t chainring. A 32t chainring and a 10-50t cassette may be used on mountain bikes with an Eagle drivetrain.
Both have a huge range of gears. However, the drivetrains’ hardest gear ratios—42t-10t and 32t-10t, respectively—are substantially different. You are less likely to “spin out” or run out of gears when pedaling quickly on a gravel bike since it can accommodate a considerably larger (42t) chainring (above 30mph).
Combinations 42t-44t and 32t-50t are the simplest. The mountain bike has considerably lower gear, making it much simpler to cycle over challenging ascents.
However, the majority of stock dirt bikes are geared for quicker riding. Of course, you may modify your drivetrain to meet your demands. They typically have a 2x setup or a larger 1x chainring.
For gravel riders who need lower gear for difficult ascents, carrying huge loads of gear on their bikes, or for slow, challenging gravel and singletrack courses, mountain bike gearing may be useful.
A mountain bike drivetrain can be installed on a gravel bike (for example, SRAM AXS supports a “mullet” setup utilizing the 10-50t mountain cassette). However, most mountain bikes lack the clearance necessary to accommodate the larger chainrings seen on gravel drivetrains. Therefore, their top speeds will always be lower than those of gravel bikes.
Gravel bikes put riders in a more upright endurance position for stability, control, and comfort when riding off-road as opposed to road or cyclocross cycles. Between road bikes and mountain bikes, gravel bikes might be viewed as a midpoint.
The geometry of a mountain bike is even more upright so that it won’t handle as quickly on asphalt or smooth gravel, but it feels more stable and instills confidence on singletrack trails and particularly rough gravel.
5. Ride Characteristics
Fit and Comfort
Tires provide most of the comfort while riding on gravel since they have higher air volume and operate at lower pressure, dampening shock, and vibration. For regular gravel roads, gravel tires in the 38–45mm range will work just fine.
The larger tires and greater suspension that mountain bikes offer may be advantageous if you’re riding on particularly difficult tracks or terrain.
The majority of gravel bikes are made to offer a somewhat comfortable riding position. Still, a mountain bike with a more upright position is viable if you have severe flexibility restrictions or other comfort difficulties that a bike can’t support.
Confidence and Capability
Mountain bikes are better if you frequently ride singletrack trails or are uncomfortable riding on dirt and gravel roads. Riders have the most stability, traction, and control thanks to the mountain bike geometry, flat handlebars, suspension, and bigger tires.
That’s excellent for pushing the envelope or being confident enough to venture off the beaten path.
But unless you start riding on more difficult mountain bike terrain, a gravel bike’s speed and efficiency will prevail. Additionally, you might be shocked at how much difficult terrain you can ride on with those small tires.
Speed and Efficiency
It should be obvious by this point that gravel triumphs over a paved or gravel bike over smooth terrain. Drop bars have a more aerodynamic profile. Less rolling resistance results from narrower tires. And for high speeds, harsher gearing is preferable.
Although fitness plays a significant role, riding a gravel bike will always make it simpler to keep up with a fast gravel group ride. On proper mountain bike terrain, such as challenging singletrack routes, mountain bikes will be faster than gravel bikes.
Another factor to consider is weight. Most of the time, gravel bikes are lighter than equivalent mountain bikes.
Who Should Use A Gravel Bike?
It isn’t easy to describe a typical gravel bike rider, as this bike is suited to many cyclists with different needs and abilities.
As we mentioned, versatility is the defining characteristic of these bikes. Therefore, gravel bike riders can be very versatile.
Gravel bikes are the best choice for cyclists who don’t want to be tied down by purchasing a bike. These bikes can handle many environments and make it easy for you to participate in many types of cycling events.
This bike is ideal for beginners who want to experience traditional and off-road biking.
G-gravel bikes are a favorite choice for those who love bike packing and multiday adventures. These bikes can be used on any road surface without damaging or wearing down the tyres.
It is an excellent option for commuters living in tight spaces. It’s great to have a bike that can handle a variety of terrains in places where space is limited.
Who Should Not Use A Gravel Bike?
Gravel bikes are not suitable for riders who have only one goal, as their primary purpose is to cross multifaceted terrains.
A road bike is the best choice for leisure riders who want a simple bike to commute on paved roads. A road bike is cheaper than a gravel bicycle, so don’t buy one if you aren’t going to use it all. While a gravel bike is a good choice if you want to ride in urban areas but still need a sturdy bike to handle extreme weather conditions. Suppose you have the money to buy one.
Benefits Of Gravel Bikes
Most riders find the advantages of gravel bikes to be more beneficial than the disadvantages. It is essential to consider both the benefits and drawbacks of this type of bike.
Among the best pros of this bikes are:
- Clearance sale to adjust tire size
- Sturdy rigid frames
- Great for bikepacking
Gravel bike riders love the versatility of their bikes, which can be used on a variety of trails. You can travel from gravel roads to mountain trails in one ride.
Risks Associated With Gravel Bikes
Be aware that a gravel bike can come with a steep price tag.
Their versatility is a plus for those who prefer to own one bike over multiple, saving you money down the line.
There are also safety risks, mainly because gravel bikes can be used on uneven terrain.
When riding your gravel bike, always wear your helmet.
If you plan to go on a long hike, tell someone where you are going and when you can expect them back. If you become injured or stranded along your journey, you can tell someone where you are.
Environmental Impact Of Using A Gravel Bike
Bicycling is an eco-friendly alternative to cars, as it reduces pollution from exhausts and during manufacturing.
Many green-conscious people choose to ride their bicycles over driving, especially in densely populated areas where smog can be a concern.
It is possible to arrive at your destination quicker by biking than by car in congested cities.
You can help nature thrive off-road by riding a gravel bike. However, it would help if you stuck to the trails and did not tear up the ground.
Is It Possible To Keep A Gravel Bike Functioning?
Regularly checking and maintaining the tire pressure on bikes are essentially to keep it running at its best. You should also be aware of the tread condition of your tires as they can be exposed to a variety of terrains over time.
As a rule of thumb, the more complex or softening the terrain, the lower your tire pressure should be.
You should also make sure your gravel bike is serviced once in a while and cleaned after each ride.
Is A Gravel Bike Required To Be Ridden In A Designated Area?
It can be used on rougher terrain, such as back roads that are bumpy or uphill and mountain trails.
It can handle most terrains thanks to its durable, thick tires. Casual and competitive cyclists can also use them.
Gravel bikes, a more agile, adaptable version of a bike hybrid, are better suited for commuting and gentle offroad riding.
What To Wear When Riding A Gravel Bike?
Safety and comfort are the most important aspects to consider when choosing an outfit for riding a gravel bicycle.
Because you’ll be spending hours on the saddle, this is important. You can choose to wear a loose-fitting or tighter cycling jersey. Whatever is most comfortable for you, it is the best choice.
For those problematic trails, knee pads and gloves can be a great addition to your protection. Protective cycling glasses are also recommended for riders who ride on loose gravel tracks.
These will prevent dirt and particles from entering your eye and stop your eyes from tearing up when you are trying to focus on the next course.
Don’t forget your helmet.
What Accessories Are Recommended For Gravel Bike Use?
You can make your gravel bike the best companion for adventure-seeking rides. Here are some accessories that you can purchase to make your journeys more seamless.
These could include but are not limited to a GPS and bottle cage, lights, the basics of a helmet and lock, and a tire pump.
A couple of waterproof frame bags are essential for anyone who plans to go bike touring, bike packing, or cycling with a gravel bike. They will protect your luggage and keep you dry while keeping your body light.
Many riders change their bars to suit their riding style (8-bar bikes).
A gravel bike is a bicycle designed for riding on unpaved roads. It is a relatively new type of bike, and it is growing in popularity among cyclists who want to explore more places and depend on different types of terrain.
BSXInsight hopes this guide provides you with valuable information. If you have any comments, suggestions, or concerns, do not hesitate to add them in the comment section below.